Kunming - Montreal GBF

Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)

  • During the COP 14 in 2018, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity cited lack of implementation tools and failure to involve all sectors of society as reasons for limited progress in the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets. They agreed to develop ambitious goals Following four years of negotiations, the Parties adopted a strategic plan called the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)* during COP 15.

    * The framework, tentatively known as a post-2020 global biodiversity framework (post-2020 GBF), was named after the two host cities in China and Canada―Kunming and Montreal. As Kunming was unable to host the physical meeting of COP 15 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it was decided that the meeting would take place at the seat of the Secretariat, which is Montreal, Canada.

  • The GBF aims to catalyze and enable transformative action across all sectors of the economy and all parts of society, with the vision of living in harmony with nature by 2050. It includes 4 long-term goals for 2050 and 23 targets to be achieved by 2030, as well as information about their implementation and evaluation.
    The framework’s targets are more ambitious and concrete than its predecessor, including conserving and managing at least 30% of the world’s land and oceans as protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, restoring at least 30% of degraded terrestrial and marine ecosystems, reducing the overall risk from excess nutrients lost to the environment, pesticides and hazardous chemicals, and reducing the rates of introduction and establishment of invasive alien species by at least 50%.
    Other targets address the financial resources needed to halt the biodiversity loss and the current divide, such as progressively reducing harmful subsidies at least $500 billion per year by 2030. In particular, Target 19 ensures to mobilize at least $200 billion per year by 2030, including increasing international financial resources from developed countries to developing countries to at least $20 billion per year by 2025, and $30 billion per year by 2030.